© 2005 Copyright of David E. Smith Publications
All Rights Reserved. Made in U.S.A.

Table of Contents
The Publishers' Space
The Brass Space
The Percussion Space
"Proofread Carefully"
The Lone Arranger
The String Space


Today the number of mergers in the publishing industry is increasing at a rate unprecedented in history. This is true in both the sacred and secular fields. The same is true with distribution entities. The reason for these mergers is simply to achieve greater efficiency in marketing and distribution and in many cases to increase the chances of financial survival since profit margins are diminishing all the time. 

by David E. Smith

Why Be A Publisher?
Ministry or Business?
Art or Passion? Part IV


Publishing considerations

People seem to believe that all publishers are wealthy and live lavish life styles. I am not an example of that kind of "success." I believe it is fair to say that I am not alone in this case- most sacred music publishers are not wealthy.

In fact, most sacred music publishers are musicians, teachers, or people connected with companies that exist under the umbrella of a church organization, an educational institution, or a division of a larger publishing enterprise. There are only a few notable exceptions and most of us are familiar with those.


And then too, the technological aspects of publishing are ever-increasing in the areas of media and marketing tools. Some have the tools but others don't and are unwilling to risk the cost of acquiring them.

So, the choices are to change parent companies or distribution sources, upgrade technology, maintain the status quo, sell out or simply cease operations. Think of the pieces you might be looking for that at one time were on the market but now are unavailable. It might be because the publisher no longer exists, having sold out or merged with another company which then deleted the item from the catalog, or copyright licensing ran out and was not renewed.

Some companies have long heritages and are surviving because they were established at a time when (1) the market was opportune (2) they had their various operation tools in place (3) everything was paid for and (4) cash flow was/is healthy.

One obvious determining factor concerning the availability of a piece is the degree to which it has been selling.

As noted in previous articles, how many level five oboe solos are you likely to sell in the sacred instrumental arena? Not many!

The advent of the computer and other peripherals make it more advantageous today to do print on demand as the market dictates. Previously, and in many cases even now, you might have to print 500 or more copies to make units profitable only to end up sitting on stacks of inventory for months.

That's why many publishers survive on first-issuing new pieces to their network of dealers and keeping a few extra copies for reorders. Thereafter the piece may not be vailable. It is a frustration for publishers, dealers and their customers, but it is the only way to survive in many cases. Also, reprinting sizeable quantities presents a puzzling decision since the potential sales base may be very limited.

I am a publisher, who, after many requests, did indeed publish an orchestration for a very popular musical...three sets were sold over the next two years!

Most publishers are very willing to listen carefully to their patrons' suggestions, but production realities often lead them to believe that it is not realistic-not profitable-to follow a small number of requests. Then, of course, the publisher must face the criticism, “He's not interested in meeting my needs.”

Many musicians are writers and are quite good at what they do. However, I'm reminded of a radio interview I heard years ago when the highly acclaimed writer was asked about what his publisher had to do with his music after it was submitted. There was a long pause, and he replied, "I don't really know; I guess I never ever thought about it."

So it's not just the consumer that doesn't understand the implications of publishing-the composers and arrangers do not either… And, as was explained in Part III, the licensing agreements and costs can be determining factors as to whether a piece leaves the warehouse or remains on the shelf to gather dust.

Next time, in the final part of this discussion, we will explore some of the legal and ministerial implications of publishing music.

To Table Of Contents

Unceasing Worship by Harold M. Best (InterVarsity Press, 2003). This one will probably take the whole summer to digest, and then some. Take your time with this book. The rewards will be great. Best helps us think biblically and deeply about the subject.

by Phil Norris


Inextinguishable Symphony: A True Story of Music and Love in Nazi Germany by Martin Goldsmith (John Wiley & Sons, 2001). This book came to my attention from the Associate Concertmaster of the Minnesota Orchestra. It's Goldsmith's biographical work of family and musical history from before World War II and afterward. If your interests include history and music, this will prove an excellent read. There are interesting insights about Christianity and Judaism. Gilead by Marilynne Robinson (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004). This book was recently recommended by Charles Colson on his Breakpoint daily commentary. Gilead won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction this year and is a refreshingly optimistic portrayal of Christianity when mainstream media paint believers in cynical or negative light. Recordings:
Le Monde du Serpent - Douglas Yeo with Gloriae Dei Cantores, Berlioz Historical Brass and members of the Boston Symphony (Berlioz Historical Brass CD-101). Doug has given us 77 minutes of serpent music. It's truly amazing playing. If you don't know what a serpent is, this CD will explain it superbly in word and sound. You can get the recording from Doug directly through his amazing website (www.yeodoug.com). This site is full of very helpful information and resources whether a trombonist or not. Trumpet Evolution - Arturo Sandoval (Crescent Moon Records-Columbia #CK-87195). Sandoval, in tribute to 19 trumpet greats from the past and present, plays a vintage piece of each players with the style and nuance of each. He's like the Rich Little of trumpet playing. His imitations are so good you have to stop and remind yourself it's not the player he's imitating! Mahler: Symphony No. 5 in C Sharp Minor - Chicago Symphony, conducted by Daniel Barenboim (ARTHAUS MUSIK DVD). This is a live on-tour concert from Cologne, Germany. The performance is Adolph Herseth's last of this monumental Mahler work, and in his 70s, Herseth is truly astounding. Both he and the orchestra are nearly flawless. This would be an hour and fifteen minutes well spent, more than once. To Table Of Contents






Phil Norris is an Associate Professor of Music at Northwestern College, St. Paul, Minnesota, where he teaches and actively performs on trumpet. He earned his DMA at the University of Minnesota. Phil is past president of the Christian Instrumentalists and Directors Association and is editor of the CIDA Sacred List of Instrumental Music.


First, when not in use the hand cymbals should be placed on a soft surface so they can be picked up without any erroneous noises. This requires either a padded trap table or a towel place over a table (or even the floor). Always pick the cymbals up with as little sound as possible. To play a crash simply move the cymbals toward each other in opposite directions allowing the upper cymbal to strike the bottom edge of the lower cymbal first. As the motion continues all of the edges will meet creating sort of a “flam” effect. The louder the volume required the farther apart the cymbals should be and the softer the volume the closer the cymbals should be. To dampen the cymbals simply allow the edges of the cymbals to rest against your arms or chest. To play a “choke” sound just dampen the cymbals immediately after hitting them together. To Table Of Contents

by Billy Madison


Playing the hand cymbals is an art all percussionists should master. Many young players frequently try to pass off the cymbal part to another player because they know that the cymbals will be clearly heard by everyone so you can't hide your mistakes. At first it seems difficult to play the hand cymbals, but with a little basic instruction it soon becomes less of a problem and more fun. I notice that when I play in the orchestra with more seasoned players there is always a rush to get to play the cymbals before someone else grabs the part.


Second, place the strap across the palm of the hand and over the inside of the bend of the index finger and make a fist. Do not place the hand inside the strap!

Make sure the fingers are tight against the pad (or cymbal if no pad is used) and then put the thumb against the bell. The grip should be fairly tight so the fingers will pull the strap while the thumb pushes against the cymbal giving control to the player. The grip should be identical for both hands. Next, hold the cymbals at chest level parallel to each other, but at a slight angle.



Billy Madison has taught instrumental music in the Arkansas Public Schools for 19 years. He holds both the BME in Instrumental Music and the MM in Music Theory and Composition from Arkansas State University. He studied composition with Jared Spears and Tom O'Connor. Madison has played percussion with the North East Arkansas Symphony since 1978.


The New Testament identifies the types or kinds of music that are acceptable in the worship of God. Ephesians 5:19 and Colossians 3:16 list "psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs." Psalms refers to the Old Testament Psalter and those later songs that arise directly out of its poetry. Hymns are those songs that set forth the truth about God. The expression spiritual songs refers to music that is neither psalms nor hymns, but has a biblically-solid, spiritual message. What is clear from Paul's comment, as well as the rest of Scripture, is that we must balance our worship between the subjective expression of our thoughts to God (Psalms 18:1-2) and the objective revelation of God to us (Exodus 15:1; Deuteronomy 31:22, 30; 32:44; Rev. 15:3; cf. 1 Corinthians 14:15). Nevertheless, today's church often finds the issue of music especially divisive. There has been an increasing clash between those who embrace contemporary music and those who enjoy more traditional music.

Pretentious performances calculated to excite men's praise can also distract from the ultimate purpose of all music: bringing glory to God. In his preaching Paul chose not to speak with "cleverness of speech" (1 Corinthians l:17b), which he had acquired through his training in classical rhetoric. In the same way, musicians involved in leading worship have a unique responsibility to reject the performance mindset often acquired in their training. The goal of the musicians involved in worship must always be the natural, undistracting excellence that draws the listeners' attention to the Lord and His truth.

Martin Luther, who revolutionized the place of music in the church, said of music: “The riches of music are so excellent and so precious that words fail me whenever I attempt to discuss and describe them... In summary, next to the Word of God, the noble art of music is the greatest treasure in the world.... This precious gift has been given to man alone that he might thereby remind himself that God has created man for the express purpose of praising and extolling God."


That is our great goal.


To learn more about The Countryside Bible Church visit its website-ww.countrysidebible.org. The philosophy is printed here with full knowledge and permission of Keith Hale, Minister of Music.


To Table Of Contents


Because of hectic schedules, it was difficult to coordinate their travel schedules. So, the husband left Minnesota and flew to Florida on Thursday, with his wife flying down the following day. The husband checked into the hotel. There was a computer in his room, so he decided to send an e-mail to his wife.

However, he accidentally left out one letter in her e-mail address, and without realizing his error, he sent the e-mail.

Meanwhile, somewhere in Houston, a widow had just returned home from her husband's funeral. He was a minister of many years who was called home to glory following a sudden heart attack. The widow decided to check her e-mail expecting messages of condolence from relatives and friends. After reading the first message, she fainted. The widow's son rushed into the room, found his mother on the floor, and saw the computer screen which read:

To: My Loving Wife
Subject: I've Arrived
Date: 16 January 2004

I know you're surprised to hear from me. They have computers here now and you are allowed to send e-mails to your loved ones. I've just arrived and have been checked in. I see that everything has been prepared for your arrival tomorrow. Looking forward to seeing you then! Hope your journey is as uneventful as mine was.

P.S. Sure is hot down here.


49) INTONATION-think of 3 vertical parts to each note...
            middle(in tune)
50) ARTICULATION -think of 3 horizontal parts to each note...
Often we emphasize the attack, and the tone, but forget to practice the ending of each note.
51) DYNAMICS-think of 3 levels of ocean movement...
TIDE ~ overall dynamic marking
(Written in the music)
WAVES ~ crescendos/diminuendos
(Written in the music)
RIPPLES ~ little nuances/accents
(Some not written)
52) TIMBRE (Color)-although basic skills can be learned as a basis for producing good tone, (breathing, embouchure, control) PLAYERS MUST HAVE AN INTERNALIZED CONCEPT OF THE CHARACTERISTIC TONE FOR THEIR VOICE/INSTRUMENT... This is one of the hardest ideas to teach, and is probably better CAUGHT than TAUGHT. (One of the musical tragedies of our day is the growing ignorance of the sounds of truly great music, which is being replaced by the cheap, artificial pop sounds across society. As a director/leader, you must do all you can to give your musicians opportunities to hear REAL MUSIC with REAL TONE. Remember that the greatest art reflects the character of God, and the beauty of His creation.)
53) Memorize appropriate phrases/images. Examples:
            (a) The roof of the mouth is the bottom of the tone
            (b) Make your mouth as wide as your nose
            (c) Speak the words, then sing the words
            (a) Sing it, then play it
            (b) Play legato passages like an organist-Fingers should "crawl" across the keys rather than over pedaling
            (c) You have an orchestra at your fingertips!
            (d) Just like riding a bike, you don't have to pedal all the time
All Performers:
            (a) Music is always in motion, even whole notes need to give a sense of purpose and a goal
            (b) Listen, listen, listen!
            (c) Slow practice before fast performance
            (d) Practice makes permanent; perfect practice makes perfect
            (e) Repeating mistakes becomes a disease
            (f) Beware of the “practice room sound”; get out of the phone booth
            (g) A great part of perfection is the elimination of errors, reduction of wandering minds
                 and unnecessary motion and other things that get in the way of the music
            (h) Dynamics...avoid “mezzo-nothing”
            (i) The group that plays together stays together
            (j) The group that breathes together-sings (or plays) together
            (k) At the release of a Pianissimo sound, let the note evaporate
(54) Make playing/singing a "moral issue"; gently remind musicians to be grateful for the opportunity God has given to be involved in music. Kindly remind them to play as if it might be the last chance they would have to pick up that instrument. (We don't want to make it seem so "heavy" that the joy is blunted, yet a certain seriousness needs to be encouraged in an age when frivolity and entertainment are the major goals touted by the world.)
(55) Occasionally change the seating arrangement of an ensemble. You might have a choir stand in a circle around you. Or, you might walk to the back of the band and have them turn around and face you for a rehearsal...YOU WILL HEAR SOUNDS FROM YOUR MUSICIANS OF WHICH YOU WERE NOT PREVIOUSLY AWARE!
(56) Get a working list of private teachers on instruments and voices. It may take years to get a consistent private lesson "mentality" in your school, but don't give up. There is absolutely no substitute for a competent private teacher.
(57) Time concert selections during the final rehearsal or two before a concert. Mark it in pencil on the score for reference.
Invite parents, alumni, staff to participate in your ensemble practices and (when appropriate) in a performance.
To Table Of Contents

by Dana F. Everson

(School, Private Study, and Church Settings) Compiled by Dana F. Everson
(Continued from the Spring issue)

37) Musicians should ALWAYS have a pencil at rehearsals.
38) When possible, make a "practice tape" of individual parts for players who could benefit from playing along with a tape at home.
39) Try rehearsing a piece from the end to the beginning. One or two phrases at a time.)
40) In instrumental groups, players may silently practice their parts while the director is working with another section.
41) Make the peak of the rehearsal time about 2/3rds of the way through.
42) Use and teach your players to use any tools available.( Metronome, tuning machine, pitch machine, tape recorder, mirror)
43) Constantly challenge players to play their best when sight reading. The first time through should not be "just for the notes", but for all the musicality possible.
44) Teach, model, and remind musicians to practice individually under the best conditions possible. (Keep instrument/voice in good working condition, practice in a comfortable ventilated environment, have a music stand and good lighting.)
45) In individual practice, stress intensity and regularity of practice more than amount of time. It's me, my instrument, and the music. I will only pause to breathe, turn the page, or mark the music.
Qualifications: a) Singers, especially, must be careful to discern musical intensity from vocal strain. b) Brass players should rest their lips about as much as they play. Use the lip rest times to continue reading the music and fingering through the parts.
46) In an ensemble, ALL PLAYERS MUST KNOW WHO HAS THE MELODY AT ALL TIMES and make appropriate adjustments.
47) Some rehearsal definitions:
            a) Balance=equal dynamic strength among parts
            b) Blend=matching timbres/vibrato/style among parts
            c) Drive=a sense of pulse; with out it the music is dead
            d) Expression=bringing out the meaning of the composition by using dynamics, timbre, and articulation.
48) Instrumentalists, including pianists, should SING THE MUSIC, seeking to find the appropriate breathing and phrasing points. The listeners should be able to comfortably "breathe the phrases" with the music.
Use word pictures/images to convey musical concepts.

(58) Begin rehearsals on time… even if everyone isn't yet there. Promote punctuality.

(59) Begin rehearsals on time...even if everyone isn't yet there. Promote punctuality.
(60) List the rehearsal order on the board.
(61) When correcting musical problems, be sensitive to players/singers: avoid personal insults or embarrassment. (Try taping yourself and listening to your own tone of voice and approach during rehearsals ...you may be surprised).
(62) An individual or group will generally not produce more than is demanded of them. Set high, but attainable standards, and press toward the ark. Challenge your students/performers; they'll give it to you.
(63) Too much talking by the director is a possible symptom of any of the following:
            a) lack of preparation
            b) lack of conducting skills
            c) lack of vision for what the musicians can accomplish
(64) When sight-reading, briefly point out the major directions of the piece in a positive way. Then, read straight through before going back to work on details.
(65) Do not work with one singer/player too long before re-involving the rest of the group.
(66) Avoid singing/humming along with players...you can't hear them as well, and they can't hear you. Stop the group/individual, sing or play what you are trying to communicate, then start them up.
(67) Be quick to compliment diligence, humility, and other signs of good attitudes!
(68) Tuning of instruments, warm ups for instruments and voices; these should become a part of a performer's regular habits. Dr. Revelli said; Routines are better caught than taught."
(69) Avoid bringing your personal feelings/troubles into the rehearsal or lesson time.
(70) The instant a teacher/director senses the musicians are not responding as they should, take corrective action.
(71) End rehearsals on time.
(72) In an ensemble setting, occasionally do not conduct. Let the performers show their training by playing/singing without you.
(73) Choir directors should constantly be looking ahead and training future student accompanists, even if you use adult/faculty accompanists.
(74) Work separately with accompanists; have more than one available and/or in training; know that the accompanist can make or break a choir or soloist!

Dana F. Everson holds the BME and Master's in Saxophone Performance degrees from Michigan State University, and a Master of Sacred Music from Pensacola Christian College. He has over 100 published works.

(Editor's Note: The 101 Tips were the basis of a workshop given by Mr. Everson. They are printed here with the hope that they will be beneficial to our readers. Tips 1-36 appeared in the Spring issue of Lines and Spaces which is available at: www.despub. com. Tips 75-101 will appear in the Fall issue.)

Robert Shaw, the leading choral conductor of the 20th Century, wrote letters to his choirs throughout his tenure as their director. Robert Blocker, Dean of the Yale School of Music, compiled many of these letters along with several of Shaw's lectures in The Robert Shaw Reader, published by Yale University Press, 2004. I highly commend this book to all who need to be reinspired about the art and craft of music, and those who would like a breath of fresh air to clear away the thick fog of trite, banal, and blasphemous music that envelops us in the guise of worship. In his lecture on "Worship and the Arts," given November 10, 1981, at Harvard University, Shaw quotes the composer Charles Ives: "Is not beauty in music too often confused with something which lets the ears lie back in an easy-chair? Many sounds that we are used to do not bother us, and for that reason are we not too easily inclined to call them beautiful? Possibly the fondness for personal expression -- which self-indulgence dresses up and miscalls 'freedom' -- may throw out a skin-deep arrangement which is readily accepted at first as beautiful -- formulae that weaken rather than toughen the musical-muscles. … Has [the composer] or has he not been drugged with an overdose of habit forming sounds? And as a result do not the muscles of his clientele become flabbier and flabbier until they give way altogether and find refuge only in platitudes -- the sensual outburst of an emasculated rubber-stamp?" Shaw continues with his own comments: "… We have to agree that only the best is good enough. One does not sharpen his sensibilities to excellence by stuffing his ears with mediocrity, however sanctimonious. One does not gain strength for the terrifying stresses of virtue by gorging his muscles on fraud and hanky-pank. A God of Truth, Goodness and Mercy is not honored by laying last night's Top-Forty or Disco Derivatives on His altar. Man may indeed laugh himself all the way to the bank -- but God is not mocked -- nor is he worshipped." Robert Shaw also identifies criteria for choosing what is worthy for worship. One of these criteria is craftsmanship. "Music is a craft, and it has rules and standards… There is handsomely constructed music, and there is cheaply constructed music. Great text and great music do not meet in Las Vegas or on Madison Avenue. Great text and great music meet on the planes of purpose and craft, where music's edifice on its own terms is as honest and serviceable, and as beautifully proportioned, as the text it seeks to illumine." Another of these criteria is, according to Shaw, historical perspective. "… Art and music worthy of worship will have historical perspective. It will have origins... This criterion is very close to what we mean by "style," and it adds to motivation and craftsmanship the incalculable increments of heritage and tradition. Note that this does not preclude, but embraces the rich legacy of folk-hymns, carols and spirituals: those tunes and texts, lovingly turned and polished by generations of unintentional composers -- nameless amateurs who loved their God and sought to praise Him." To Table Of Contents

by Jay-Martin Pinner


Musings and Ponderings, Part 3

In the past few months I have had occasion to consider the response of unbelievers to the music in Christian worship services. My observations and conclusions have been disturbing. It appears that we have much work to do as Christian musicians and educators to help those within our sphere of influence refocus our worship on Christ with music that speaks appropriately to the greatness of His finished work on our behalf.


Shaw's father was a Disciples of Christ preacher, and Shaw's mother "was the best singer of gospel songs and spirituals [he] ever heard." Shaw memorized scripture, taught Sunday School classes and filled the pulpit for his father, yet throughout his professsional career Shaw looked to the arts as the hope and salvation of mankind. Despite his personal unbelief Robert Shaw had more spiritual insight about music and worship than many who claim to be believers.





Shaw makes another statement that those of us in leadership positions are responsible musically "for our own back yards." Perhaps we need to look out the back door and see if the fence is still up.


Jay-Martin Pinner is Head of the String Department at Bob Jones University in Greenville, South Carolina, and conducts the University Symphony Orchestra.


A couple from Minneapolis decided to go to Florida to thaw out during one particularly icy winter. They planned to stay at the very same hotel where they spent their honeymoon 20 years earlier. The clearest and most profound biblical example of music used in this way in corporate worship is 2 Chronicles 5:11-14: When the priests came forth from the holy place and all the Levitical singers, Asaph, Neman, Jeduthun, and their sons and kinsmen, clothed in fine linen, with cymbals, harps and lyres, standing east of the altar, and with them one hundred and twenty priests blowing trumpets in unison when the trumpeters and the singers were to make themselves heard with one voice to praise and to glorify the LORD, and when they lifted up their voice accompanied by trumpets and cymbals and instruments of music, and when they praised the LORD saying, "He indeed is good for His loving kindness is everlasting," then the house, the house of the LORD, was filled with a cloud, so that the priests could not stand to minister because of the cloud, for the glory of the LORD filled the house of God. To Table Of Contents

by the elders of Countryside Bible Curch, Southlake, TX 76092


God created music for the sole purpose of bringing Him glory (cf. Romans 11:36). It predates creation (Job 38:7) and will always exist as a channel for the worship of God (Revelations 5:9; 15:3).

Music is only a part of our worship to God, but it is an important part, so it is crucial, therefore, that we understand its proper role and its biblical use.

Scripture speaks very directly to several issues about musical worship. It often records God's approval of a variety of musical instruments in worship (e.g., 1 Chronicles. 25:6; Ps. 150). Choirs and vocalists, separate from the congregation, were a prescribed part of Israel's worship (1 Chronicles 15:16-28; 2 Chronicles 5:13ff; Nehemiah. 7:1; 12:27-47). God appointed men to lead the musical element of the corporate worship (1 Chronicles 15:27; Nehemiah 12:42, 46; 55 of the Psalms begin with "for the choir director"). Biblical music could be either loud and exuberant (Psalms 95:1; 98:4; 150:5) or quiet and contemplative (2 Chronicles 35:25).


The absence of any reference in Scripture and the testimony of church history demonstrate that there is no biblical restriction on any particular sound or progression of notes.


Churches have chosen one of three basic responses to this conflict. (1) Some have decided to use only one style of music-either entirely contemporary or entirely traditional. (2) Others have attempted to resolve the conflict by providing separate services: an all-contemporary service and an all-traditional service. Both of those solutions only further divide and segment the church rather than produce mutual understanding and unity. (3) At Countryside Bible Church, we have chosen to take the third solution: to plan for a mix of the best of traditional and contemporary music. This has been the historic position of our church.

Regardless of the style of music, the actual presentation of the vocalists and musicians is very important. Musicians that are unprepared or music that is done poorly can distract from worship. Thus the biblical imperative to 'play skillfully' implies acquired abilities, training, as well as rehearsal (1 Chronicles 15:22; 25:7; Psalms 33:3).


Martin Luther, who revolutionized the place of music in the church, said of music: “The riches of music are so excellent and so precious that words fail me whenever I attempt to discuss and describe them...
Once again, I have some summer listening and reading to do. Here are some of my recommendations. And as before, please send me your favorites (e-mail: pen@nwc.edu; phone: 651.631.5187). Enjoy!

Preach Christ Always
And As A Last Resort
Use Words.
St. Francis of Assisi


for ordering options: [ChurchMusic.biz] [Dealer List]

Copyright 2006 David E. Smith Publications, LLC.