VOL 3, NO. 2, MAY, 2001

VOL 3, NO. 2, May, 2001

© 2001 Copyright of David E. Smith Publications
All Rights Reserved. Made in U.S.A.

Table of Contents
The Publishers' Space
String Space
Percussion Space
The Quarter
Brass Space
Lone Arranger's Space
Substitute Organist
Woodwind Space
Meet The Editor
What's the most important thing a customer wants to hear when buying a piece of music? Yes! It's available! All the solos and ensembles in the DESPUB and Majestic sections of the Catalog are completed. A couple of items worth elaborating on... Pomp and Circumstance as a band/orchestra set in a Hymnsembles format that will fit your larger group at upcoming graduations. It's arranged with harmonic and contrapuntal interest while maintaining the traditional flavor it deserves. And, Devotionals for Musicians #2 which is a desirable work for private or group devotions based on biblical references to music.

by David E. Smith

Our website has been updated with all the new items listed in our catalog. The complete listing of Majestic works is now integrated into the solo and ensemble sections. The Salvation Army Hallelujah Choruses and Classic Solos are all listed too. The solos were originally published in Europe and are now produced in the United States. Recordings in various areas and publishers are now included as well. And, of course, patrons can sign up for our email notification of the latest news releases.

Our featured writer this issue is our editor, Dr. Harlow Hopkins, who has contributed so much to sacred instrumental music over the decades with his performing, leading and teaching.

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by Jay-Martin Pinner

Congratulations! You have a completed arrangement in your hands. You proofed the first draft and you finished the editing process. Now, what can you do to give your arrangement a professional look? Are there reference books that can help you put your arrangement on paper in an acceptable format? If you should ever be brave enough to do this again, what are some ways you can continue to grow and develop as an arranger?

Whether manuscript or computer typeset, the arrangement should have a neat, clean, easy-to-read appearance. Refer to fine editions of classical music as patterns for general layout. Peters, Oxford and Henle publish music that is of the highest quality typography. Avoid placing more than five or six measures in a system. Space measures out so that there are no partial measures or empty areas on a staff. Leave adequate space between systems so that note stems and slurs on one staff do not overlap onto another staff. A typical solo part should have no more than ten or twelve staves on a page. A piano/score accompaniment should have no more than four or five systems on a page. Margins should be not less than one half inch. The paper itself should be a non-glare white or off-white paper, 24 lb. or heavier to keep the paper from curling on a music stand. For ease in photocopying keep page copy within an 8 1/2" x 11" framework.

It is helpful to include a performance timing beneath the title as well as a copyright notice at the bottom of the first page of the arrangement. For music in the public domain the necessary papers and fees have to be filed with the United States Copyright Office. For music under copyright the copyright owner must grant permission in writing before an arrangement can be duplicated, sold or otherwise distributed to the public. The appropriate fees must be paid in advance of the release of the arrangement.

Two excellent reference books for typography, layout and accepted notation practices are: The Norton Manual of Music Notation, by George Heussenstamm, © 1987, by W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., ISBN 0-393-95526-5; and Essential Dictionary of Music Notation, by Tom Gerou and Linda Lusk, © 1996, by Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., ISBN 0-88284-768-6. Both of these books contain indispensable information for any arranger or composer, whether the preferred method of notation is with pencil or computer. These books include illustrations of correct and incorrect layout, numerous examples related to the topics being discussed and helpful indexes for quick reference.

What can you do as an arranger to keep growing and developing? Keep an "idea file" of hymns and their arrangement possibilities. List titles and what instrumentation might work well for each. When the creative urge strikes refer to this notebook to jump-start an arrangement. Keep your eyes and ears open for usable ideas. Listen to the music of great composers and arrangers for sonorities and instrumentation that you like. Explore how you can incorporate those sounds into your own work. Experiment with different arranging technics to develop your own style. Be creative within the bounds of good taste. Keep a notebook of finished arrangements. If you perform your own arrangements include a record of when, where and what you played. This saves guesswork and needless repetition. It also keeps your creative work close at hand in an organized manner.

What do you receive for all of this effort? When you hear a string arrangement beautifully played to worship the Lord, when you see a student enjoy playing your creative work, when you hear someone present your arrangement and it sounds exactly as you envisioned it -- that is more than enough reward to motivate you to write another arrangement! So, what are you waiting for?

Jay-Martin Pinner is Head of the String Department at Bob Jones University in Greenville, South Carolina. He is an award-winning composer and arranger with several dozen published works. Five of his sacred string and brass arrangements are published by David E. Smith Publications, LLC.

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by Harlow E. Hopkins


Previously we published on this site a poem entitled "Living Within Your Dash," indicating that the author was unknown. We recently learned, however, that this poem, actually entitled "The Dash," was written by Linda M. Ellis of Linda's lyrics (http//www.linda'slyrics.com) and that Ms. Ellis owns and has registered the copyright to her poem. We are glad that we can now credit Ms. Ellis as the author and copyright owner of "The Dash."

I've lost two dear friends in recent months-friends of more than fifty years. These painful reminders of our human mortality are difficult to accept......!

The poem above was read at the mausoleum service of my friend who passed away most recently. It caused me to consider both friends' “dashes.” They served Christ faithfully, joyfully, wholeheartedly, and were an inspiration to others. They were kind, considerate, helpful friends-always a pleasure to be around. The memories are many and they are precious. Both are now with their Maker and their never-ending eternal “dash” has just begun. Mine and yours continue.

Soren Kierkegaard, noted theologian/philosopher said "We cannot see God's hand when we look ahead, but when we look back we are able to see how his Hand has directed our lives."

How true it is, and what a wonderful legacy-what a wonderful “dash” the Christian can have!

As we continue to dash through life we need only to “Keep Christ First” in every facet of life to insure that our “dash” will be positive.

In Heaven we will be able to sing, “To God be the glory” because “He led me all the way.” That's probably what my friends are doing-maybe right now!

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by Billy Madison

The practice of rudiments is important for the development of good percussion technique. This technique will be useful in playing various percussion instruments. Practicing rudiments will train the muscles to perform without having to think about what you are doing, which is imperative when playing fast technical passages.

The traditional method of practicing rudiments is open-closed-open which means start slowly and gradually get faster then slow down to the original speed. This is an effective method and should be used, however, before it can be done smoothly it might be better to learn the rudiments at three different tempos first. Practice at a slow tempo, a medium tempo and a fast tempo. How slow or how fast is relative to the ability of the player. Be sure that each rudiment is played smoothly and correctly at each tempo. Once this is accomplished the open-closed-open method should be employed. When the fastest tempo is reached (never faster than can be played smoothly) hold that speed for a while and then slow down. Do it again and this time push the tempo just a little faster. Eventually this will result in faster, smoother rudiments, which produce better technique.

A common problem for students learning rudiments is switching from individual strokes to bounces especially in the roll rudiments. This is the same problem encountered in the long roll, 5-stroke roll, 7-stroke roll, paradiddle, etc. In order to overcome this problem one should practice double bounces at three different speeds also. The slower bounces will probably be more difficult and should be given more time. It is the point that the individual strokes become bounces in these rudiments that the biggest problem occurs. As the shift to bounces happens the bounces will be relatively slow, therefore bouncing slowly must be mastered. Once the shift from strokes to bounces is achieved smoothly many rudiments will become easier to play.

With a regular regimen of rudimental practice a percussionist's technique will definitely improve and so will his/her ability to perform. Don't overlook the importance of rudiments, as they are a drummer's “scales.” Good technique always accompanies diligent practice of fundamentals.

Billy Madison holds the BME (Instrumental Music), the MM (Music Theory and Composition) and the SCCT in music. All three degrees were taken at Arkansas State University. He has studied composition with Jared Spears and Tom O'Connor. Since 1978 Madison has been a percussionist with the Northeast Arkansas Symphony Orchestra and has taught instrumental music in the Arkansas public schools for 15 years. Madison currently resides in Newport, Arkansas.

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As he considered what to do, he thought to himself, you better give the quarter back. It would be wrong to keep it. Then he thought, "Oh, forget it, it's only a quarter. Who would worry about this little amount? Anyway the bus company already gets too much fare; they will never miss it. Accept it as a gift from God and keep quiet." When his stop came, he paused momentarily at the door, then he handed the quarter to the driver and said, "Here, you gave me too much change."

The driver with a smile, replied, "Aren't you the new preacher in town? I have been thinking lately about going to worship somewhere. I just wanted to see what you would do, if I gave you too much change."

When my friend stepped off the bus, he literally grabbed the nearest light pole, and held on, and said, "O God, I almost sold your Son for a quarter."

Sometimes, our lives are the only Bible some people will ever read.



by Phil Norris

For brass players there's a strange attraction to playing high notes, especially on trumpet. The saying, "higher-faster-louder," is the mantra of some! Unfortunately, HOW it's done can lead to disastrous results and a lifetime of poor playing habits and frustration. I trust that the following may provide some helpful guidance to those "on their way up" and some redirection for those already "up there" and having trouble.

Range should be extended gradually over time, maintaining openness and clarity of tone, unrestricted blowing, and intonation. Some things that help high register playing to be easier are:

1) increased speed of blowing, without isometric locking of the blowing muscles; the "trick" is to blow directly TO the lips, without choking off the air flow in the throat or compressing the air in the chest. To contrast the two kinds of blowing: the first should be open and free, like blowing with the word "FOO" or "WHOO"; the second is like blowing, squeezing your tongue to the roof of your mouth and making a hissing or fizzing sound. We always want the first, NEVER the second.

2) Regulate the air pressure AT the lips, not in the throat or chest; the opening of the lips is very small for high notes, and we want to blow TO the lips to create a higher frequency buzz. Said another way, we squeeze the lips together more firmly for high notes and AT THE SAME TIME blow a full, fast amount of air TO them. If the air is compressed in the chest by "kinking the fuel line" in the throat (i.e. constricting the throat), there will be inadequate AMOUNTS of wind to activate the lips at the high frequencies. When we create internal compression of air within the body, the action is called the Valsalva maneuver. This maneuver is used for expelling bodily waste, in childbirth, and as a defensive action in combat. But we don't want this internal compression in playing in any register. Compressed air lacks the quantity for adequate tone, pitch and volume. When one blows with too much pressure and not enough quantity, the tone is thin (if it occurs at all) and the pitch will be sharp.

3) shoving the lips toward the mouthpiece rather than pulling the horn into the lips; having more PUCKER so as to grip the mouthpiece more firmly. I often say to students, "pucker and blow." That covers a lot. The energy of blowing and lip movement should always be outward from the body, not pressing the mouthpiece harder onto the mouth. For high notes, the mouthpiece pressure will need to be a bit firmer (than for lower notes) to maintain the lip seal, but no more than is needed to keep the lips sealed.

4) higher back of the tongue positioning, without undue tensing of the tongue; but the tongue position cannot be too high or the "kinking" effect will take place and not enough wind will activate the lips.

5) maintaining the jaw position OUT; for very high notes, the lower jaw actually juts out a small amount beyond the top jaw; this point is one of the most common flaw in players with range trouble.

6) turning the corners of the mouth DOWNWARD; this is helped much by point #3; one exercise for this is to place a pencil or pen in the mouth, hold it with the teeth NOT the lips, and move the pencil upward. You'll notice the lower jaw goes out and the corners of the lips turn downward. This is the lip movement needed for the high register pucker mentioned above. The appearance of this motion will be more or less pronounced depending on the facial structure of each players. What's important is not the amount of downward turning of the lip but that it turns downward NOT upward or in a smile shape. A generation ago, the smile embouchure was commonly taught, but no longer. For fuller, richer tone with good intonation, the pucker embouchure is what works best.

7) the practice of pedal tones (see below); I don't know exactly why this works, but it does. I believe that in pedal playing the lips are strengthened by the slower vibration while at the same time they relax. Both strength and relaxation are needed for good upper register playing, and pedal tones seem to provide that dual function.

8) having a single pressure point on the upper teeth, particularly for trumpet and horn playing; a pressure point is a high spot on the tooth/teeth structure where the mouthpiece contacts the lip against the teeth. If the front teeth are flat (as opposed to wedged outward or curved) there is increased surface contact when the mouthpiece touches which tends to reduce blood circulation in high playing; the mouthpiece and teeth act as a vice on the lips. Slightly bucked and short front incisors tend to help upper register playing ease. A split between the front teeth also helps in velocitizing the airflow for very high notes.

Modern orthodontics tends to "correct" these structures. Left alone, these teeth structures may actually help upper range, especially for trumpets and horns. If the front incisors wedge inward, two pressure points can totally cut off the blood flow to that section of the lip. In such a case, the player should shift the mouthpiece position slightly to one point or the other and eliminate this problem. Artificial pressure points can also be manufactured by an orthodontist by bonding or use of an acrylic wedge to the outside of the front upper incisors. However, there may be very few orthodontists who will do such a procedure, and some players can't work with the artificial material in the mouth.


Pedal tones are notes below the normal resonant pitches of the instrument. They are primarily used in trumpet and trombone playing, but are also part of euphonium and tuba playing. They are more common in cylindrical instruments than conical, and are useful for extending the range upward in the strength and relaxation they develop. Pedals also aid in creating a relaxed, flexible jaw position. Once a player has developed a strong low register and pitch sense, pedals can be attempted. I introduce them to players as soon as they are able to play a strong low register. I like students to slide down to them as well as play them as clean intervals, and I have players tongue repeated notes on pedals.

Phil Norris is an Associate Professor of Music at Northwestern College, St. Paul, Minnesota, where he teaches and actively performs on trumpet. Last spring he completed a DMA degree at the University of Minnesota. Phil is a former president of the Christian Instrumentalists and Directors Association and continues to compile and edit the CIDA's Sacred List of Instrumental Music.

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The teacher is like the candle
which lights others in
consuming itself.
Giovanni Ruffini, writer


by Dana F. Everson

The general procedure that writers follow is basically the same for everyone. The details differ as each writer is an individual.


The IDEA in arranging is two-fold: 1) the TUNE itself, and 2) a personalized/customized SETTING of the tune. The setting is what makes each arranger unique. The composer starts with, theoretically, nothing, and builds the tune and the setting at once. But the arranger starts with a previously written tune and a sound image of how to present the tune in an appropriate and creative way for a specific instrumentation and purpose.

A MIGHTY FORTRESS IS OUR GOD may evoke an aural image in the arranger's mind's ear of a large brass ensemble playing block chords at a strong dynamic level. Looking at the second or third verses, however, might suggest a solo trumpet with quieter background chords in the low brass. Or, the arranger might hear a smaller but staunch clarinet quartet playing block chords for the verse, then moving to some simple contrapuntal duet lines for the chorus section.

In every case, however, the setting must support the tune, not the reverse. If the setting of a ring distracts from the diamond, or if the frame of a painting draws the eye away from the painting itself, something is out of balance.


What I mean by this is the process of "working out" the arrangement. Once the basic idea is clear, and the general form has been decided, the putting together of countermelodies, accompaniments, chord progressions, color and dynamic changes, melodic and rhythmic variations are employed or discarded as the arranger struggles (often) through the trial and error step of putting the piece together so that it portrays a continuous, organic flow from start to finish. This is the rough draft stage and is assuredly the most demanding of the writer's creativity and skill. When a writer gets this far, to the completed sketch , I always urge him to finish the job!

(There is often a tendency to look at our attempts thus far and think "Why do I even try?" I know: I have said this to myself a thousand times at least!)

But if one stops here, and NEVER HEARS IT PLAYED, a great opportunity for learning and improvement will be lost.


Going from sketch to final copy and readings is time-consuming, (copying parts, organizing or "borrowing" performers) and sometimes disappointing. (I have learned never to trust the first reading of my works!) Adjust your expectations to the situation, the players' experience and skill, and by all means, record the best reading you can get. Even if your arrangement only gets used once, and even if the recording is not studio quality, you can go back and learn, and write again.

These are the three steps in a nutshell. These are what you might expect as a writer, and what non-writers can learn to appreciate about writers.

Dana Everson has over 125 published sacred instrumental arrangements with David E. Smith Publications. Following 22 years as Asst. Prof. of Music at Delta College, he moved to Wisconsin in the summer of 1999 to take up teaching duties at Northland Bible College. Everson holds the BME, MM and MSM degrees. He has arranged for the Michigan State University marching and concert bands and spent a summer as a performer in the Disneyland All-American Band.

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by Harlow E. Hopkins

"Here's a copy of the service," he said impatiently. "But you'll have to think of something to play after I make the announcement about the finances."

During the service, the minister paused and said, "Brothers and sisters, we are in great difficulty; the roof repairs cost twice as much as we expected, and we need $4,000 more. Any of you who can pledge $100 or more, please stand up."

At that moment, the substitute organist played "The Star-Spangled Banner."

And that is how the substitute became the regular. God answers Knee-Mail!


In this article alternate fingerings which involve the little fingers in the clarinet's Clarion register will be discussed.

by Harlow E. Hopkins


Often players may be seen sliding one of thelittle fingers from one key to another when they should be using an alternate fingering. Altogether too often they are unaware that there is an alternate fingering.

Technique is negatively affected when available alternate fingerings go unused!

The Chalumeau notes require that the thumb and six fingers cover their assigned tone holes. In addition, of course, the Clarion register notes require the register key to be depressed as well.

These notes require the use of key Y, which has no counterpart on the left side of the instrument.

Key Z is required for the notes shown in example 2. There is no counterpart on the right side of the instrument.

Examples 3, 4 & 5 contain notes which give the player a choice-a key on the right or a key on the left.

The notes which require the use of either key L1 or key R1 are shown in example 3. The latter is the alternate.

These notes require the use of either key L3 or key R3. L3 is the alternate.

Example 5 shows the notes which require the use of either key L3 or key R3. The latter is considered the alternate.

Examples 6 and 7 indicate which little finger should be used (L-left) (R-right) and whether or not the fingering is considered basic (B) or alternate (A).

The following passage from Debussy's Premiere Rhapsody for Clarinet in Bb is a perfect example of the need for one to know about alternate fingerings and be able to use them!

The passage can also be fingered beginning on the right. However, the point remains that alternation is imperative to playing the passage smoothly.

Measure 1 in the above example requires sliding the right little finger from D# to C# to avoid an impossible jump with the right little finger in going to measure 2-B to D#.

Measure 3 requires a transferring from right to left on the two C#s to again avoid an impossible C# to D# interval with the right little finger.

When sliding is absolutely necessary, go “downhill,” i.e., go from key Y to R2 or Y to R3, rather than the opposite “uphill” movement. Also, Go from Z to L3 or L1 to L2 and L1 to L3.

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The teacher is like the candle
which lights others in
consuming itself.
Giovanni Ruffini, writer

by Pauline E. Spray


In September, 1949, he enrolled at Olivet Nazarene College (now Olivet Nazarene University, Bourbonnais, Illinois). That introduced him to the school and resulted in a life-long association.

He and his wife, the former Harriet Boughan, were married after they graduated from ONU in 1953. She, a musician also, had accompanied others during college years, traveled for the school, and highly developed her piano skills. Both taught part-time at Olivet Nazarene University while working on their Masters Degrees.

The U. S. Army beckoned in 1955, and he spent two years in the Service playing clarinet in the Third Armored Division Band and the Seventh Army Symphony. The second year was spent in West Germany.

During their stay in Germany, Harriet substituted in the Army Dependent School and upon returning to the United States, taught music for 27 years. First, part time at Olivet Nazarene University, and then in the public schools of Peotone and Bourbonnais, Illinois.

After completing his Master's Degree at the American Conservatory of Music, Chicago, Illinois, Hopkins returned to Olivet Nazarene University to teach full-time, an assignment which included directing the band and orchestra.

While the Hopkins family lived in Bloomington, Indiana from 1963 to 1966, Hopkins worked toward a Doctor of Music degree at Indiana University. The doctorate was conferred in 1974.

Hopkins was the principal clarinetist in the Kankakee Valley Symphony Orchestra when it was begun by Dr. Reinhold Schuller. Following the inaugural concert, Dr. Schuller invited Hopkins to conduct the orchestra. This he did from 1968 to 1970. Following a four-year leave of absence, he rejoined the Symphony, becoming the principal clarinetist once again. He has been a part of the Orchestra since 1974.

In 1995 Olivet Nazarene University honored Hopkins by naming the Alumni Center for him.

Dr. Hopkins retired in 1996 after completing 29 years as Head of the Division of Fine Arts and the Department of Music, and 39 years as Director of Bands. He gave Olivet Nazarene University 42 years of full-time service.

During this time, the Hopkins also served two churches as part-time Ministers-of-Music, as well as continuing to be active in their home church. They are currently serving Central Christian Church in Bourbonnais as organist/pianist and choir director.

In 1998 Dr. Hopkins assisted in the founding of a community New Horizons Band and serves as a co-conductor. He continues as principal clarinetist with the Kankakee Valley Symphony Orchestra as well as serving on the Symphony Board.

Dr. and Mrs. Hopkins have one son, Mark, who lives in Woodridge, Illinois, with his wife Brenda and their two children, Jason (14) and Dana (10).

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Preach Christ Always
And As A Last Resort
Use Words.
St. Francis of Assisi
Harlow E. Hopkins, an only child, was born in Flint, Michigan. He began his musical career at age 11 by taking clarinet lessons, although he had no way of knowing how far that early beginning would take him.
The minister had spent much time in prayer. The need was great. He was preoccupied with thoughts of how he was going to, at the end of the worship service, ask the congregation to come up with more money than they were expecting for repairs to the church building. Therefore, he was annoyed to find that the regular organist was sick and a substitute had been brought in at the last minute. The substitute wanted to know what to play.

Preach Christ Always
And As A Last Resort
Use Words.
St. Francis of Assisi
Several years ago a preacher moved to Houston, Texas. Some weeks after he arrived, he had occasion to ride the bus from his home to the downtown area. When he sat down, he discovered that the driver had accidentally given him a quarter too much change.

Preach Christ Always
And As A Last Resort
Use Words.
St. Francis of Assisi

Preach Christ Always
And As A Last Resort
Use Words.
St. Francis of Assisi


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