VOL 2, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 1, 2000

VOL 2, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 1, 2000

© 2000 Copyright of David E. Smith Publications
All Rights Reserved. Made in U.S.A.

Table of Contents
The Publishers' Space
The Lone Arrangers's Space
Meet Doug Smith
Brass Space
String Space
Percussion Space
Woodwind Space
A Christmas Wish
To Table Of Contents

by David E. Smith

This month our featured writer is Douglas Smith who has a long reputation of creating fine arrangements for the church setting. Having his work has been a real PLUS to our Catalog. There's Three Plus Flutes which serve well for trios, quartets, or full flute choir settings PLUS their counterparts of woodwind quartets. Then there's the famed Four Plus Brass which are formed as brass quartets (two trumpets and two trombones) with optional horn and tuba parts for additional color. This series has pieces for all the various holiday celebrations. As you scan the catalog you can spot solo arrangements he has done. Among his latest productions are the Duets based on Hymnbook Harmony for flutes, saxes, trumpets, and trombones. These collections of twenty-four arrangements can be used as same instrument or mixed instrument duets, or serve as two part descant for congregational singing.

We now have a new service using e-mail broadcasting to notify you as to the latest product or service. Contact us with your e-mail address and we will add you to that service.


To Table Of Contents

by Dana F. Everson

In II Timothy 4:13, Paul asks for the basics; his cloak, his books, and the parchments.

Of course we are not equating music textbooks with the Scriptures, but we see that Paul recognized the importance of reading and of having the right tools for study.

For the arranger/composer, several books come to mind that I would like to suggest for those of you who would like to build or strengthen your library. Please note that this is a select list; there are many other titles that are of at least some help.

Disclaimer: All of the following titles are helpful, but neither David E. Smith Publications nor I necessarily endorse the entire contents of each resource. Also, some titles may be out of print, but available at your library or through used book sellers. Books with an asterisk (*) are the best in each category in my opinion; read them first.,P. Having said that, here are my suggestions along with some brief comments.

BASIC THEORY (With emphasis on harmony)

*Materials and Techniques of Tonal Music--Benjamin/Horvit/Nelson
This book offers a compact, practical course in the study of common practice harmony. It is amazing how many facts are packed into this moderate-sized volume. The chapters are many but quite short and to the point. There are exercises at the end of each chapter and a number of brief, helpful appendices.

Harmonic Materials in Tonal Music--Harder/ Steinke, Two Volumes.
This is a programmed approach to all the essentials of traditional harmony. It is very thorough and moves very logically and gradually.

Music Theory Handbook--Merryman
Here is an excellent survey, in very condensed form, of all you need to know about tonal harmony, counterpoint, and form. It is an inexpensive paperback volume that would make a fine review for those whose theory has become all but a faint memory. It may also serve as a concise introduction, pointing the reader to the major areas of importance both for analysis and for writing.


Form and Analysis--Hutcheson/Spring
A very insightful volume with many scores and examples in the back for in-depth study. The writers are clear, thorough, and quite practical. One of the best ways to prepare for composition/arranging would be to carefully study this book.


The following three titles complement each other. There is some overlap, but each has its own special value as a reference and teaching source for counterpoint.

This is probably the best standard all-around textbook for 18th century counterpoint. Careful reading is required, but it gives very thorough coverage of every major aspect of counterpoint. A workbook is available.

Basic Contrapuntal Technique --Reed/Harder
Unfortunately, out of print. It is quite basic, but there are a number of principles presented and explained in this book that are unique and very practical.

Counterpoint: Fundamentals of Music Making--Thakar
This book offers a unique perspective; that of the conductor's viewpoint, of species counterpoint. The vocabulary is challenging, but very descriptive and thought-provoking.


*The Technique of Orchestration--Kennan.
This is probably the best all-around text on the subject. Many of the principles given will apply to various types of ensembles, not just full orchestra. It is well organized and quite thorough. A workbook is available.

The Essentials of Instrumentation--Hansen.
A wonderfully clear, concise introduction to the characteristics of instruments, followed by condensed, practical principles of combining them in ensembles. There are some scores included in the back, and some very helpful exercises.

Comprehensive and broad coverage. Some information can be gleaned here which is not easily found elsewhere.

Orchestral Technique--Jacob.
A basic introduction with some "Britishisms" in explanations and approaches. It is a small handy volume with good insights and suggestions especially for the beginning orchestrator.

The Study of Orchestration--Adler.
This is a quite densely-packed volume for the person who wants to know anything and everything about orchestration. There is a CD package available and a workbook.

The Art of Orchestration--Rogers.
A delightfully written text that begins with the analogy of the orchestrator as a tone painter. Some excellent insights and historical connections.

Creative Orchestration--McKay.
This book lives up to its title and offers some fresh viewpoints (pedagogically) on clarity, balance, blends and colors.


*Instrumental Arranging--White.
This text may be the best all around study of the subject. It has chapters on texture, writing for younger players, planning the arrangement, as well as a quick survey of instrumentation. If you could only get one title on arranging, this should be the one. There are CDs and a workbook available.

BAND ARRANGING *Scoring for the Band--Lang.
This volume, written in the 1950's is great for getting the basics of band arranging. Although it may be out of print, it is worth finding a copy and reading it carefully. Philip Lang produced many fine arrangements and transcriptions for the concert band repertoire and his ideas are worth considering.

Band Scoring--Wagner.
The author starts with the premise that the arranger is most likely going to transcribe from a piano score. In this respect it is very useful and helpful. Out of print.

Arranging for the Concert Band--Erickson.
This would be an excellent book for the novice arranger, and a good refresher for experienced writers. A workbook is available.

CHORAL ARRANGING *Choral Arranging--Ades.
The author begins with a review of part writing. The text has a modulations chart, step by step suggestions for various choral ensembles, and an excellent chapter on planning an arrangement. Many of the principles will transfer to instrumental writing.

Contemporary Choral Arranging--Ostrander/Wilson.
This book is set up differently than Ades' book, and provides some balancing views on approaches to use of the voice.

Choral Composition--Davison.
Out of print, but very much worth reading if only for some colorful descriptions of the principles of vocal/choral arranging.

Dana Everson has over 125 published sacred instrumental arrangements with David E. Smith Publications. Following 22 years as Assistant Professor of Music at Delta College, he moved to Wisconsin in the summer of 1999 to take up teaching duties at Northland Bible College. Everson holds the BME, MM and MSM degrees. He has arranged for the Michigan State University marching and concert bands and spent a summer as a performer in the Disneyland All-American Band.



Doug was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, but began his musical training (in the 7th grade) in Bristol, Virginia, under Hamp Richardson, a professional trumpeter with credits in the Lucky Strike Hit Parade Orchestra and other assignments in New York.

Following high school graduation he enrolled at Carson-Newman College. When asked why he chose Carson-Newman, he replied, "I was Baptist through and through, son of a Baptist Pastor, and Carson-Newman was the quality Baptist school closest to my home." It was there that he began his first private study with Calvin Huber.

Smith studied trumpet with John Haynie at North Texas State and Clifford Lillya at the University of Michigan and was an assistant to both.

Doug was privileged to play in the Michigan Symphony Band during the final two years of William Revelli's 36-year tenure as Director of Bands. Doug led brass sectionals of the Symphony Band in addition to his work as a trumpet instructor.

In 1968 Smith won the wind division annual concerto competition and was featured as soloist with the Michigan Symphony Orchestra playing Bloch's "Proclamation." Jesse Norman was the vocal division winner that year. The night of the concert they and the nation were shocked to learn that Martin Luther King, Jr. had just been assassinated in Memphis.

The high school band and church ministry were Smith's windows to the music profession. The band director had heard (and actually played) some of Doug's church arrangements for trumpet trio. That led the director to ask if Doug would be interested in a real life arranging commission (for no money of course).

Smith recounts, "It seems that a predominantly Black high school had asked our band to play at one of its football games. (They had no band of their own.) At halftime they wanted us to play their school song, but couldn't find it scored for band.

"My director told me the situation, found the school song in hymnbook version, and asked me if I would consider scoring it for our marching band. Needless to say there were lots of lessons to be learned--owing to my total lack of theory training--before that could be accomplished. But it was! The rest is history."

Music Theory education began with Prof. Charles Jones (Carson-Newman College), who provided Smith with a wealth of information. Merrill Ellis and Samuel Adler at North Texas State, and Wallace Berry at the University of Michigan all added to that "Jones" basic foundation.

The 61 Trumpet Hymns and Descants are perhaps Smith's best known publications. They are complemented by the 61 Trombone Hymns and Counter-Melodies.

In addition to his teaching, Smith continues to conduct the Seminar Orchestra as well as the Chapel Orchestra which is also known as the "Churchestra".

To Table Of Contents

To Table Of Contents

by Phil Norris

Lip Slurring:
Lip Slurs are the most physically demanding and taxing activities of brass playing. For this reason, intensive work on them should be delayed until later in development, though some work can be gradually added as strength and control grow. The term "lip slur" is really a misnomer. The lip is not the only thing engaged in lip slurring. The back of the tongue is (and must be) part of the process. As the slur ascends, the back of the tongue needs to raise (like saying "oo" and changing to "ee").

Lip slurs accomplish three things:
1) Build a clear sense of where notes lie on the horn (i.e. defining the overtone series), 2) Build strength and endurance, and 3) Provide flexibility for the player, the ability to move around quickly, accurately, and gracefully. Ascending slurs are the always the challenge, not descending slurs.

It is vitally important to maintain (or increase) the airflow when doing ascending lip slurs. Blowing should be in a forward direction, in the way the five lines of the staff move across the page: steady, unwavering, full. Blowing should not follow the note direction, but should always be constant and fluid. The greater the interval skip, the more important linear blowing becomes for both tonal and control reasons.

Trombone Slurring: Except for lip slurs, trombones can slur in only one other way. If the slide and the slur move in opposite directions, the slur can be done (i.e. if the notes slur upward and the slide moves downward, a written slur can usually be done without tonguing).

For example, trombones can slur from fourth line F to top space G. The F is in 1st position, the G is in 4th: F slurs UP to G, the slide moves from 1st DOWN to 4th (or vice versa). To slur from top space G up to Bb is not possible when Bb is played in 1st position, but it IS possible if Bb is played in 5th position. With Bb in 1st, a glissando would sound. This points out the essential need for trombonists to know alternate positions.

To accomplish a good slide slur, the slide must move as quickly and smoothly as possible. The slide movement and lip change need to work exactly together.

In cases where no alternate position is available to allow true slurring, the trombonist must play a marked slur using LEGATO TONGUING. This is called an articulated slur. The challenge for the trombonist is to move the slide quickly enough to avoid the sound of a glissando, making the trombone sound like a valve instrument, yet slur-like.

Phil Norris is an Associate Professor of Music at Northwestern College, St. Paul, Minnesota where he teaches and actively performs on trumpet. Last spring he completed a DMA degree at the University Minnesota. Phil is a former president of the Christian Instrumentalists and Directors Association and continues to compile and edit the CIDA's Sacred List of Instrumental Music.


To Table Of Contents

by Jay-Martin Pinner

In the last issue of Lines and Spaces this column focused on choosing an appropriate hymn or gospel song to arrange for string instruments, and how to sketch a tentative framework of keys and transition material for that arrangement. As a continuation of that article the next step in arranging for string instruments is to write the rough draft.

As with the rough draft of a research paper, the first draft of a string arrangement is subject to revision. It can be a point of departure for many revisions, perhaps even a complete rewrite, or it can turn out to be the final destination with only minor changes needed to satisfy the arranger.

When beginning the first draft of an arrangement the arranger should keep the message of the text in mind. (I Corinthians 14:15 I will sing with the spirit and I will sing with the understanding also.) An arrangement that relies heavily on ear-tickling chords or rhythms that fail to enhance the text while moving the listener to worship God does not meet this Biblical criteria for sacred music, and is best left unwritten.

Some arrangers who enjoy working with pencil and manuscript paper begin with a three-line staff, much like a condensed score that can be played at the piano. Other arrangers are comfortable with playing a MIDI keyboard directly into a music program on the computer and into a standard score template.

Regardless of which notation method is used, the first stanza should be presented plainly and simply to focus the listener's attention on the text associated with the melody. Often an arranger will write an introduction after having gotten ideas while writing the first stanza, so it might be advisable to leave the opening measures blank and begin working directly on the first stanza.

The listener should be allowed to hear the melody and rhythm largely unchanged from what is normally sung. The harmonic structure may be slightly altered to lend new emphasis and freshness to the melody or to point up important words in the text, but major changes in melody, rhythm or harmony in the first stanza tend to be counterproductive when trying to engage the listener.

Successive stanzas should keep the melody pre-dominant or at least present! Additional stanzas should place the melody in a different setting by varying the tempo, by changing the key, by changing the mood according to the verses of the text, or by using a different writing technique. While the melody should not be camouflaged beyond recognition, techniques such as an obbligato figure, double stops, arpeggios and scale lines may be employed to add variety to the melodic material. The arranger should take care to be consistent with an appropriate writing style for the entire arrangement. A "classical" style should not break into a congregational piano accompaniment style halfway through the arrangement. Nor should a minor key with a slow tempo serve as a setting for a song of rejoicing.

Keep the musical material simple. Use material from the hymn for introductions, bridges and endings. These references to the hymn may be melodic, rhythmic, harmonic or a combination of elements. Arrangers use this technique to give the work a musical framework that sounds familiar to the listener while being subtle and unobtrusive. Using this technique also enables the arranger to write an introduction that does not bore the listener by revealing the piece before it has begun. Material can be borrowed from other existing musical lines in the hymn such as a soprano descant or another vocal line. Inexperienced arrangers make the mistake of writing too many ideas into an arrangement. Paring the arrangement down to include only the two or three best ideas is part of the pruning process that an arranger should plan for when writing a first draft.

The next column will focus on practical suggestions for finishing a string arrangement, checking the theoretical aspects of the writing and adding workable bowings.

Jay-Martin Pinner is Head of the String Department at Bob Jones University in Greenville, South Carolina. He is an award-winning composer and arranger with several dozen published works. Five of his sacred string and brass arrangements are published by David E. Smith.


To Table Of Contents

by Billy Madison

During a rehearsal it is better to play on a substitute instrument than to just ignore the part because the proper instrument isn't available. The idea is to find another instrument that has the same basic characteristic sound as the original. The substitution is never as good as what is called for in the score nor will it have the exact same sound quality, but it should suffice until the correct instrument can be obtained. The following suggestions are for some of the more common percussion instruments used in many scores. Even though this is a very small list and the substitutions may seem obvious it is intended only to provide an example to follow so one can determine his/her own substitutions should they become necessary.


  • Tom-tom - Snare drum with snares off
  • Tenor drum - Tom-tom or Snare drum with snares off
  • Hi-hat cymbals - Pair of crash cymbals held horizontally flat together
  • Antique cymbals - Orchestra bells or bell lyre
  • Orchestra bells - High register of a vibraphone with medium mallets
  • Vibraphone - Orchestra bells in the low register with medium hard mallets
  • Marimba - Play one octave lower on the xylophone with soft or medium soft mallets
  • Xylophone - Play one octave higher on the marimba using hard or medium hard mallets
  • Chimes - Orchestra Bell or vibraphone in the low register playing double stops at the octave
  • Tam-tam (Gong) - Large suspended cymbal using a very soft mallet
  • Tambourine - Snare drum with loose snares, played near the rim
  • Triangle - Finger cymbals or dome of a suspended cymbal struck with a metal beater
  • Finger cymbals - Triangle or dome of a suspended cymbal struck with a metal beater
  • Castanets - Woodblock played with snare drum sticks
  • Woodblock - Rim of bass drum, tom-tom or snare drum
  • Slapstick - Rim shot on the snare drum
  • Temple blocks - Wood blocks
  • Ratchet - Single stroke roll on the rim or shell of a bass drum played with snare drum sticks
  • Timbales - Two tom-toms or two snare drums with snares off (one pitched higher than the other)
  • Conga drum - Low tom-tom
  • Cowbell - Bell of a suspended cymbal played with the butt end of a snare drum stick
  • Timpani - Bass drum (however, the harmonic effect is lost)

Although we would prefer a perfect world with perfect percussion it just doesn't always turn out that way. Whatever the reason, one should always be prepared to cover all of the percussion parts of a composition even if the proper equipment isn't readily available. Instead of wasting time trying to place blame as to why the part wasn't covered it is better to play all of the parts as best as one can and then make sure every piece of equipment is where it should be the next time.

Billy Madison holds the BME (Instrumental Music), the MM (Music Theory and Composition) and the SCCT in music. All three degrees were taken at Arkansas State University. He has studied composition with Jared Spears and Tom O'Connor. Since 1978 Madison has been a percussionist with the Northeast Arkansas Slymphony Orchestra and has taught instrumental music in the Arkansas public schools for fifteen years. Madison currently resides in Newport, Arkansas.

To Table Of Contents

by Harlow E. Hopkins


To Table Of Contents

by Harolow E. Hopkins

When all the holiday sounds and all the frenzied activity cease, and silence descends upon your home and heart, may the Spirit of Christ whisper:


"I came that you might have
Life and have it more abundantly."

(John 10:10)


At that electric moment may

Peace engulf your being,
Joy bubble up within,
Light shine from your eyes,
Love for those in your life
produce a
Smile which broadcasts:


"I know the true meaning of Christmas!"



Order Newsletter

To Table Of Contents

Preach Christ Always
And As A Last Resort
Use Words.
St. Francis of Assisi
CHRISTMAS WISH... Harlow E. Hopkins
An article will appear in this space in the next edition following a "vacation."
It has been my experience that no matter how well prepared you think you are for a rehearsal a piece of music is frequently rehearsed that calls for a percussion instrument that is not readily available at the time. In some schools a composition may require an instrument that the school doesn't own. Someone may be using the instrument in another ensemble that meets at the same time. An instrument may be on loan to another organization. Perhaps, whoever was responsible to see that all equipment is ready just didn't do their job. As you can see there are many scenarios that might call for a player to substitute one per cussion instrument for another. Even though it is not desirable it sometimes becomes necessary.
Arranging Sacred Music for String Instruments, Part 2
In this installment, I wish to briefly consider slurring on brass instruments.


G. Douglas Smith is a well-known arranger who is the Mildred and Ernest Hogan Professor of Church Music at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky.
We, at David E. Smith Publications, LLC, are pleased to announce the acquisition of Majestic Music Publications as of November 30, 2000. DESPUB has been exclusive distributor for Majestic for the past two and one-half years and now takes over as owner. Hundreds of arrangements by Gordon Schuster as well as other writers will continue to serve the David E. Smith Publications, LLC Catalogs as an excellent source of upper level solos and ensembles for woodwinds, brass and strings. They can be found on pages 45-58 of the 2000-2001 Catalog and will soon be added to the catalog listing of the company website- www.despub.com. And as always, all items will continue to be available at your favorite dealer. Many Majestic items that were previously listed, yet not available, have been deleted from our present Catalog, but in the future will become new additions as they are produced. (Past backorders on these items will be dropped and customers notified.) The Majestic Music Publications items will remain under that name to retain the identity of the products involved and will be referred to as a division of David E. Smith Publications, LLC.


for ordering options: [ChurchMusic.biz] [Dealer List]

Copyright 2006 David E. Smith Publications, LLC.